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|Nature Podcast: 6 April 2017 |
This week, easing the pressure on fisheries, protein structure surprises, and your reading list for 2017 so far.
|Podcast Extra - Grand Challenges: Mental health: |
Mental health disorders touch rich and poor, young and old, in every country around the world. Hear three experts discuss the evidence for interventions, how to get help to the right people, and which problem, if solved, would help the most.
|Podcast Extra - Futures |
Futures is Nature's weekly science fiction slot. Shamini Bundell reads you her favourite from March, 'Green boughs will cover thee' by Sarah L Byrne.
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|Biocontrol: Crown-of-thorns no more |
The starfish Acanthaster planci destroys coral reefs. Whole- genome sequences provide clues to the proteins that mediate A. planci outbreaks — information that might be used to help protect coral.
|Marine conservation: The race to fish slows down |
A fishery can allow participants to fish as hard as they can until its quota is reached, or allocate quota shares that can be caught at any time. A comparison of the systems in action reveals that shares slow the race to fish.
|Structural biology: A receptor that might block itself |
The structure of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor reveals a potential mode of self-blocking action. This might explain its lack of signalling, and opens up avenues of investigation into its function and role in disease.
|Materials Science: Screen printing of 2D semiconductors |
Atomically thin semiconductors have been made by transferring the oxide 'skin' of a liquid metal to substrates. This opens the way to the low-cost mass production of 2D semiconductors at the sizes needed for electronics applications.
|Mono-unsaturated fatty acids link H3K4me3 modifiers to C. elegans lifespan |
A deficiency in H3K4me3 methyltransferase causes accumulation of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, which is important for lifespan extension in C. elegans and could be relevant in mammals.
|Structural basis for selectivity and diversity in angiotensin II receptors |
Crystal structures of two complexes of the angiotensin II receptor AT2R with distinct tightly bound ligands reveal an active-like state of the receptor, in which helix VIII adopts a non-canonical position that blocks binding of G proteins and β-arrestins.
|Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model |
A general simulation approach that can replicate, and in theory predict, the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including porous, molecular and ionic crystals, is demonstrated.
|Dual-phase nanostructuring as a route to high-strength magnesium alloys |
Combining the benefits of nanocrystals with those of amorphous metallic glasses leads to a dual-phase material—comprising sub-10-nanometre-sized nanocrystalline grains embedded in amorphous glassy shells—that exhibits a strength approaching the ideal theoretical limit.
|Re-evaluation of learned information in Drosophila |
Depending on prediction accuracy at the time of memory recall, specific mushroom body output neurons drive different combinations of dopaminergic neurons to extinguish or reconsolidate appetitive memory in Drosophila.
|Myt1l safeguards neuronal identity by actively repressing many non-neuronal fates |
The neuron-specific transcription factor Myt1l represses many somatic lineage programs, but not the neuronal lineage program, to both induce and maintain neuronal identity.
|Mutual regulation of tumour vessel normalization and immunostimulatory reprogramming |
The cross-talk between immune cells and blood vessel endothelial cells promotes pericyte coverage and decreases hypoxia in mouse tumour models, and correlative evidence suggests that these processes influence cancer prognosis in humans.
|Catch shares slow the race to fish |
A large-scale treatment–control meta-analysis of US fisheries provides evidence that the implementation of catch shares extend fishing seasons by slowing the race to fish.
|The crown-of-thorns starfish genome as a guide for biocontrol of this coral reef pest OPEN |
Genome sequencing and proteomic analyses of the crown-of-thorns starfish identify species-specific secreted factors that are associated with aggregating starfish and might be useful for biocontrol strategies.
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|Background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge with GERDA |
If neutrinos are their own antiparticles, neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge should occur; a new lower-limit half-life of 5 × 1025 years for this process has now been determined under background-free conditions.
The GERDA Collaboration, M. Agostini, M. Allardt et al.
|Myeloid progenitor cluster formation drives emergency and leukaemic myelopoiesis |
During emergency myelopoiesis in mice, clusters of self-renewing granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP) are transiently formed in the bone marrow cavity to produce a burst of myeloid cells; in leukaemia, GMP clusters persist and constantly generate myeloid leukaemia cells.
Aurélie Hérault, Mikhail Binnewies, Stephanie Leong et al.
|3D structures of individual mammalian genomes studied by single-cell Hi-C |
A chromosome conformation capture method in which single cells are first imaged and then processed enables intact genome folding to be studied at a scale of 100 kb, validated, and analysed to generate hypotheses about 3D genomic interactions and organisation.
Tim J. Stevens, David Lando, Srinjan Basu et al.
|Complex pectin metabolism by gut bacteria reveals novel catalytic functions |
The hierarchical deconstruction of the complex pectic glycan rhamnogalacturonan-II by the human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveals seven new families of glycoside hydrolases and three catalytic functions not previously observed.
Didier Ndeh, Artur Rogowski, Alan Cartmell et al.
|Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy |
By switching shell growth on and off on the (0001) facet of wurtzite CdSe cores to produce a built-in biaxial strain that lowers the optical gain threshold, we achieve continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot films.
Fengjia Fan, Oleksandr Voznyy, Randy P. Sabatini et al.
|Ancient evolutionary origin of vertebrate enteric neurons from trunk-derived neural crest |
Whereas the enteric nervous system of jawed vertebrates is derived largely from the vagal neural crest, that of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is populated by trunk-derived neural crest cells that may be homologous to Schwann cell precursors.
Stephen A. Green, Benjamin R. Uy, Marianne E. Bronner
|Cerebellar granule cells encode the expectation of reward |
A sizable fraction of granule cells convey information about the expectation of reward, with different populations responding to reward delivery, anticipation and omission, with some responses evolving over time with learning.
Mark J. Wagner, Tony Hyun Kim, Joan Savall et al.
|DHX9 suppresses RNA processing defects originating from the Alu invasion of the human genome |
In the absence of DHX9, circular RNAs accumulate and transcription and translation are dysregulated—effects that are exacerbated by concomitant depletion of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR.
Tuğçe Aktaş, İbrahim Avşar Ilık, Daniel Maticzka et al.
|Single-nucleus Hi-C reveals unique chromatin reorganization at oocyte-to-zygote transition |
Using a single-nucleus Hi-C protocol, the authors find that spatial organization of chromatin during oocyte-to-zygote transition differs between paternal and maternal nuclei within a single-cell zygote.
Ilya M. Flyamer, Johanna Gassler, Maxim Imakaev et al.
|The lung is a site of platelet biogenesis and a reservoir for haematopoietic progenitors |
Direct imaging of the lung microcirculation in mice indicates that it is a major site of mature platelet production from megakaryocytes.
Emma Lefrançais, Guadalupe Ortiz-Muñoz, Axelle Caudrillier et al.
|CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity |
Analysis of spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus reveals that type II CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to ensure a successful CRISPR immune response.
Joshua W. Modell, Wenyan Jiang, Luciano A. Marraffini
|A massive, quiescent galaxy at a redshift of 3.717 |
A massive ancient galaxy with minimal star formation is observed spectroscopically at an epoch when the Universe is less than 2 billion years old, posing a challenge to theories.
Karl Glazebrook, Corentin Schreiber, Ivo Labbé et al.
|Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight |
In addition to generating lift by leading-edge vortices (as used by most insects), mosquitoes also employ trailing-edge vortices and a lift mechanism from wing rotation, which enables them to stay airborne despite having a seemingly unlikely airframe.
Richard J. Bomphrey, Toshiyuki Nakata, Nathan Phillips et al.
|Structural insights into adiponectin receptors suggest ceramidase activity |
Structures of the adiponectin receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 combined with molecular dynamics simulations and enzymatic assays suggest that both receptors have intrinsic ceramidase activity.
Ieva Vasiliauskaité-Brooks, Remy Sounier, Pascal Rochaix et al.
|Low-temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol using Pt/α-MoC catalysts |
As an alternative vehicle fuel, hydrogen can be generated in situ from methanol and water—a process that is shown here to occur under mild conditions using a catalyst that comprises platinum atomically dispersed on an α-molybdenum carbide substrate.
Lili Lin, Wu Zhou, Rui Gao et al.
|Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production |
Long-term records of global carbonyl sulfide levels reveal that terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) increased by around 30% during the twentieth century—a finding that may aid understanding of the connection between GPP growth and climate change.
J. E. Campbell, J. A. Berry, U. Seibt et al.