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|TABLE OF CONTENTS |
August 2017 Volume 10, Issue 8
News and Views
Progress from catastrophe p537
Natural disasters can devastate local communities. However, these rare events also often trigger new ways of thinking, and provide a treasure trove of data that must be used to reduce vulnerability.
Eocene temperature gradients pp538 - 539
Jessica E. Tierney, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Richard D. Pancost, Appy Sluijs & James C. Zachos
See also: Correspondence
Reply to 'Eocene temperature gradients' pp539 - 540
See also: Correspondence by Tierney et al.
News and Views
National baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals assessed in the SDG Index and Dashboards pp547 - 555
Guido Schmidt-Traub, Christian Kroll, Katerina Teksoz, David Durand-Delacre & Jeffrey D. Sachs
The Sustainable Development Goals map out a broad spectrum of objectives. Analytical tools in form of the Index and Dashboards provide a starting point to set national baselines, and allow comparison of the SDGs with other indices of well-being.
Abrupt climate transition of icy worlds from snowball to moist or runaway greenhouse pp556 - 560
Jun Yang, Feng Ding, Ramses M. Ramirez, W. R. Peltier, Yongyun Hu et al.
Icy planets and moons could become habitable as their host stars brighten and their ice melts. Climate simulations instead show a rapid transition from a snowball to an inhospitable greenhouse climate with significant water loss.
See also: News and Views by Ingersoll
Remote detection of widespread indigenous water in lunar pyroclastic deposits pp561 - 565
Ralph E. Milliken & Shuai Li
Volcanic glasses sampled by Apollo missions display high water contents. Remotely sensed spectral data show that pyroclastic deposits are generally enriched in water across the Moon, suggesting significant amounts of water in the lunar interior.
Hemispheric climate shifts driven by anthropogenic aerosol-cloud interactions pp566 - 571
Eui-Seok Chung & Brian J. Soden
A southward shift of the tropical rainbelts over the late twentieth century has been attributed. Climate simulations suggest that the mechanism for this influence lies largely with the interaction of aerosols with clouds.
Reduced North American terrestrial primary productivity linked to anomalous Arctic warming pp572 - 576
Jin-Soo Kim, Jong-Seong Kug, Su-Jong Jeong, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Anna M. Michalak et al.
Anomalous Arctic warming has been linked to colder North American winters. Analyses of weather and productivity observations reveal that Arctic–North American teleconnections reduce gross primary productivity in the US.
See also: News and Views by Bastos
Microbial substrate preference dictated by energy demand rather than supply pp577 - 581
Maximiliano J. Amenabar, Everett L. Shock, Eric E. Roden, John W. Peters & Eric S. Boyd
Microbes are expected to prefer substrates with the highest energy yield. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that a metabolically flexible archaeon exhibits preference for and greater growth from lower energy substrates.
Microbial oxidation as a methane sink beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet pp582 - 586
Alexander B. Michaud, John E. Dore, Amanda M. Achberger, Brent C. Christner, Andrew C. Mitchell et al.
Subglacial lakes contain active microbial ecosystems capable of cycling methane. In a subglacial lake in West Antarctica, methane that is produced is subsequently consumed, limiting the potential for methane emissions during lake drainage.
High levels of endocrine pollutants in US streams during low flow due to insufficient wastewater dilution pp587 - 591
Jacelyn Rice & Paul Westerhoff
Wastewater can make up a large fraction of stream flow. An analysis of over 14,000 US streams shows that under severe low-flow conditions, wastewater containing endocrine disruptors is poorly diluted, and many streams exceed safety thresholds.
Formation of plateau landscapes on glaciated continental margins pp592 - 597
David L. Egholm, John D. Jansen, Christian F. Braedstrup, Vivi K. Pedersen, Jane L. Andersen et al.
Plateaus separated by deeply incised fjords are hallmarks of glaciated passive continental margins. Computational experiments show that they arise from evolving feedbacks between topography, ice dynamics and erosion over millions of years.
See also: News and Views by Margreth
Dynamics and early post-tsunami evolution of floating marine debris near Fukushima Daiichi pp598 - 603
John Philip Matthews, Lev Ostrovsky, Yutaka Yoshikawa, Satoru Komori and Hitoshi Tamura
The tsunami triggered by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake carried debris seaward. Satellite data and numerical simulations suggest that small-scale wind modifications over a smooth film-covered sea surface affected debris motions.
A reverse energy cascade for crustal magma transport pp604 - 608
Leif Karlstrom, Scott R. Paterson and A. Mark Jellinek
The controls on magma transport in the crust are poorly known. Field analysis and numerical modelling of magmatic intrusions preserved in North America suggest that surface transfer of magma increases in warming crust as the magmatic system ages.
Tsunamigenic structures in a creeping section of the Alaska subduction zone pp609 - 613
Anne Becel, Donna J. Shillington, Matthias Delescluse, Mladen R. Nedimović, Geoffrey A. Abers et al.
Creeping subduction zones are unlikely to generate tsunamigenic earthquakes. Analysis of a creeping part of the Alaskan subduction zone reveals fault structures similar to those in Tohoku, suggesting it may host large earthquakes and tsunamis.
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