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Nature Volume 556 Issue 7701
This Week  
Military work threatens science and security
In an uncertain world, more governments are asking universities to help develop weapons. That’s a threat to the culture and conscience of researchers.
Checklists work to improve science
Nature authors say a reproducibility checklist is a step in the right direction, but more needs to be done.
A welcome framework for research in Africa
A new set of ethics principles should help researchers and funders do justice to the interests of those involved with Africa’s genomics research.
World View  
Science must rise up to support people like me
Institutions could do more to support researchers who have disabilities, says Aaron Schaal.
Aaron Schaal
Research Highlights  
Gentle ‘slow slip’ earthquakes belie hidden danger
Fluid build-up after a slow quake raises the risk of massive rupture.
Why fit fathers sire smarter offspring
Mice that hit the running wheel have brainier pups than sedentary rodents do.
Laser-beam ‘tweezers’ guide two atoms to collide
A carefully manipulated crash shows what happens when atoms collide in the cold.
Deadly tumours are often born of childhood mutations
Early chromosomal disruption can set the stage for kidney cancer decades later.
Jays play nicely with the right hormone
A molecule boosts generosity in birds but doesn’t make them altruistic.
Speedy nanoengine zooms along DNA tracks
Molecular device stays on the straight and narrow.
A stomach virus’s mysterious path into the gut is uncovered
Mouse experiments show how noroviruses do their dirty work.
Antimatter’s annihilation burns brightly
Particles’ obliteration may boost semiconductor luminescence.
Legless baby amphibians dine on mother’s skin
Parenting methods of elusive caecilians are described.
Seven Days  
Second March for Science, flesh-eating virus and protein fraud
The week in science: 13–19 April 2018.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.

Assays for Oncology research
: Exploring hallmarks of cancer with real-time live-cell analysis
News in Focus
Great Barrier Reef saw huge losses from 2016 heatwave
One-third of reefs in the world’s largest coral system were transformed by warmed waters, finds comprehensive underwater and aerial survey.
Quirin Schiermeier
East Asia braces for surge in deadly tick-borne virus
Rapid rise in number of infections and high fatality rate concern researchers.
David Cyranoski
US environmental group wins millions to develop methane-monitoring satellite
The Environmental Defense Fund is working with researchers at Harvard University on the probe.
Jeff Tollefson
Air-pollution trackers seek to fill Africa’s data gap
Low-income sub-Saharan countries bear a high burden of air pollution, but are nearly unrepresented in the research on its health impacts.
Nicole Wetsman
Spain’s biggest-ever science petition decries ‘abandonment’ of research
Researchers deliver 280,000-signature campaign to parliament protesting decade of drastic cuts — but a budget hike might be in their sights.
Michele Catanzaro
Attacks in UK and Syria highlight growing need for chemical-forensics expertise
Nations seek to better address future chemical-weapons threats.
Declan Butler
How to blow up a star
Supernova simulations are resolving a 50-year-old mystery about stellar death throes.
Elizabeth Gibney
Medicine’s secret ingredient — it’s in the timing
Synchronizing drug delivery with a patient’s body clock can yield clear benefits. But will the data be enough to overcome long-standing hurdles?
Lynne Peeples
Nature Podcast 19 April 2018
This week, tiny sea creatures with big effects, the science of a supernova, and a roundup of spring books.
How to curb production of chemical weapons
Companies that manufacture and distribute the precursors to lethal agents must be open to surveillance and inspections, argues Leiv K. Sydnes.
Leiv K. Sydnes
Regulate artificial intelligence to avert cyber arms race
Define an international doctrine for cyberspace skirmishes before they escalate into conventional warfare, urge Mariarosaria Taddeo and Luciano Floridi.
Mariarosaria Taddeo, Luciano Floridi
Books and Arts  
How to retool our concept of value
Robert Costanza applauds Mariana Mazzucato’s call for more-productive, equal and sustainable economies.
Robert Costanza
The trouble with the Nobel prize
Ron Cowen weighs up Brian Keating’s call to reform the most coveted award in physics.
Ron Cowen
Talking sense on climate change, the biology of behaviour and a prehistoric shark with a twist: New in paperback
Mary Craig rounds up the highlights of this season’s releases.
Mary Craig
When feathers flew at a natural-history archive
Stuart Pimm on the tragic tale of a hobbyist, a heist and a great scientific legacy.
Stuart Pimm
The illusion of time
Andrew Jaffe probes Carlo Rovelli’s study arguing that physics deconstructs our sense of time.
Andrew Jaffe
War and peace and summer camp
Andrew Haslam appraises an account of key experiments on the psychology of conflict and cooperation.
Alex Haslam
The long search for the pain gene
Tor Wager lauds a book on the hunt for an elusive root of sensory suffering.
Tor Wager
Long-term tracking of biodiversity is more important than ever
Lisa Norton
Code reviewing puts extra demands on referees
Nicolas P. Rougier, Konrad Hinsen
A repository for quality-assured data on enzyme activity
Neil Swainston, Carsten Kettner
Sharp rise in premier papers from Brazilian universities
Gabriel José de Carli, Tiago Campos Pereira
Steer cancer funding to align with clinical goals
Johnathan Watkins, Wahyu Wulaningsih
YouTube your science
Video is an engaging way to make your research more accessible, says Adrian A. Smith.
Adrian A. Smith
Space pioneer
Meteorologist Insa Thiele-Eich is training to become Germany’s first female astronaut.
Virginia Gewin
Career Briefs  
Canadian universities fall short on diversity
Make-up of academic workforce is skewed compared with other sectors.
One NIH grant can lead to another
Recipients of postdoc fellowship are more likely to secure further agency cash.
Wasteland of sand and ice
Rapid response.
Tomás McMahon
Vertically migrating swimmers generate aggregation-scale eddies in a stratified column
Laboratory experiments with the brine shrimp Artemia salina illustrate the potential for turbulence generated by the diurnal vertical migrations of aggregations of centimetre-scale zooplankton to affect the physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic water columns.
Pluripotency factors functionally premark cell-type-restricted enhancers in embryonic stem cells
Binding of an embryonic stem cell-specific transcription factor pre-marks cell-type-restricted enhancers in ES cells, and this premarking is required for the robustness of enhancer activation in differentiated cells.
Mechanism of NMDA receptor channel block by MK-801 and memantine
A high-resolution X-ray structure and molecular dynamics simulations of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in complexes with channel-blocking ligands reveal the molecular basis of ligand binding and channel block.
Identification of the tumour transition states occurring during EMT
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in tumour cells occurs through distinct intermediate states, associated with different metastatic potential, cellular properties, gene expression, and chromatin landscape.
Electrophilic properties of itaconate and derivatives regulate the IκBζ–ATF3 inflammatory axis
The immunoregulatory metabolite itaconate and its dimethyl derivative induce electrophilic stress and react with glutathione to induce both Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent responses, resulting in AF3-mediated inhibition of the inflammation-related protein IκBζ.
Renewing Felsenstein’s phylogenetic bootstrap in the era of big data
A new version of the phylogenetic bootstrap method enables assessment of the robustness of phylogenies that are based on large datasets of hundreds or thousands of taxa.
Genetic identification of leptin neural circuits in energy and glucose homeostases
A subset of neurons in the hypothalamus is identified as the primary site of action for regulating energy balance and glucose homeostasis by leptin.
SAMHD1 acts at stalled replication forks to prevent interferon induction
SAMHD1 has an essential role in the replication stress response and prevents inflammation by activating the MRE11 nuclease to degrade nascent DNA strands at stalled replication forks, thus enabling replication.
Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages
Acute heat stress from the extended marine heatwave of 2016 is a potent driver of the transformation of coral assemblages, which affects even the most remote and well-protected reefs of the Great Barrier Reef.
A randomized trial of normothermic preservation in liver transplantation
Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver improved early graft function, demonstrated by reduced peak serum aspartate transaminase levels and early allograft dysfunction rates, and improved organ utilization and preservation times, although no differences were seen in graft or patient survival.
Structural basis of ligand binding modes at the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor
Crystal structures of the neuropeptide Y1 receptor in complex with two distinct antagonists combined with NMR, molecular docking and mutagenesis studies inform a proposed model for receptor–agonist binding.
Synthesis, structure and reaction chemistry of a nucleophilic aluminyl anion
An aluminium compound is synthesized in which the aluminium is formally anionic; reactions with various substrates suggest that this compound acts as the nucleophilic partner in both metal–carbon and metal–metal bond-forming reactions.
News & Views  
Immune memory in the brain
Alexi Nott, Christopher K. Glass
Peptides used to make light-twisting nanoparticles
Guillermo González-Rubio, Luis M. Liz-Marzán
When sex differences lead to extinction
Hanna Kokko
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Electronics and photonics united
Goran Z. Mashanovich
50 & 100 years ago
A stockpile of antiviral defences
Sébastien Levesque, Sylvain Moineau
Bounteous black holes at the Galactic Centre
Mark R. Morris
Laser spectroscopic characterization of the nuclear-clock isomer 229mTh
Laser spectroscopy is used to investigate the hyperfine structure and determine the fundamental nuclear properties of the isomer 229mTh, the strongest candidate for the realization of a nuclear clock.
Johannes Thielking, Maxim V. Okhapkin, Przemysław Głowacki et al.
Functional circuit architecture underlying parental behaviour
Galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area coordinate different aspects of motor, motivational, hormonal and social behaviour associated with parenting by projecting to different brain regions depending on the type of behaviour and sex and reproductive state of mice.
Johannes Kohl, Benedicte M. Babayan, Nimrod D. Rubinstein et al.
Innate immune memory in the brain shapes neurological disease hallmarks
Peripheral stimuli can induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to long-lasting epigenetic reprogramming of microglia; these changes alter pathology in mouse models of stroke and Alzheimer’s pathology.
Ann-Christin Wendeln, Karoline Degenhardt, Lalit Kaurani et al.
Genome evolution across 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates
Whole-genome sequencing of 1,011 natural isolates of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals its evolutionary history, including a single out-of-China origin and multiple domestication events, and provides a framework for genotype–phenotype studies in this model organism.
Jackson Peter, Matteo De Chiara, Anne Friedrich et al.
Two separate outflows in the dual supermassive black hole system NGC 6240
Observations of NGC 6240 show two differently driven outflows of different gases with a combined outflow rate comparable to the star formation rate, suggesting possible negative feedback on star formation.
F. Müller-Sánchez, R. Nevin, J. M. Comerford et al.
Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip
A way of integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics is described, using polycrystalline silicon on glass islands alongside transistors on bulk silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor chips.
Amir H. Atabaki, Sajjad Moazeni, Fabio Pavanello et al.
A library of atomically thin metal chalcogenides
Molten-salt-assisted chemical vapour deposition is used to synthesize a wide variety of two-dimensional transition-metal chalcogenides.
Jiadong Zhou, Junhao Lin, Xiangwei Huang et al.
Amino-acid- and peptide-directed synthesis of chiral plasmonic gold nanoparticles
Chirality can be ‘encoded’ into gold nanoparticles by introducing chiral amino acids or peptides during the growth process, leading to the formation of helicoid morphologies.
Hye-Eun Lee, Hyo-Yong Ahn, Jungho Mun et al.
High male sexual investment as a driver of extinction in fossil ostracods
Ostracod species (small, bivalved crustaceans) with high sexual dimorphism, and therefore high male investment, had markedly higher extinction rates than low-investment species, indicating that sexual selection can be a substantial risk factor for extinction.
Maria João Fernandes Martins, T. Markham Puckett, Rowan Lockwood et al.
Aspm knockout ferret reveals an evolutionary mechanism governing cerebral cortical size
In a ferret model, the microcephaly-associated gene Aspm regulates cortical expansion by controlling the transition of ventricular radial glial cells to more differentiated cell types.
Matthew B. Johnson, Xingshen Sun, Andrew Kodani et al.
An evolutionarily conserved ribosome-rescue pathway maintains epidermal homeostasis
Loss of the ribosome-rescue factor Pelo in a subset of mouse epidermal stem cells results in hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of these cells.
Kifayathullah Liakath-Ali, Eric W. Mills, Inês Sequeira et al.
Activity-based E3 ligase profiling uncovers an E3 ligase with esterification activity
Non-lysine ubiquitination activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MYCBP2 is identified by activity-based profiling; biochemical and structural analysis of MYCBP2 suggests the basis for its mechanism and specificity.
Kuan-Chuan Pao, Nicola T. Wood, Axel Knebel et al.
Structural basis for ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling by the INO80 complex
Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the evolutionarily conserved core of a fungal INO80 complex bound to the nucleosomal substrate reveal the mechanism underlying nucleosome sliding and histone editing used by this ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller.
Sebastian Eustermann, Kevin Schall, Dirk Kostrewa et al.
Structure and regulation of the human INO80–nucleosome complex
Cryo-electron microscopy structure of the human INO80 chromatin remodeller in complex with a bound nucleosome reveals that its motor domains are located at the DNA wrap around the histone core.
Rafael Ayala, Oliver Willhoft, Ricardo J. Aramayo et al.
Fuel Combustion Chemist Mani Sarathy researches alternative fuels, Sarathy works closely with atmospheric scientists to better grasp the fate of exhaust emissions in the air to help improve the impact of environmental impact of pollution. The research even looks at utilising artificial intelligence and machine learning to improve combustion processes.


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