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Nature Volume 556 Issue 7702
This Week  
Challenge anti-Semitism
A wave of anti-Jewish prejudice is once again washing over schools and universities. There is no excuse not to call out this vile behaviour.
Climate talks are not enough
As officials meet in Bonn to swap stories on progress towards the Paris goals, only emissions cuts will guarantee a happy ending.
The science photos worth seeing
Results from a Nature photo competition show the power of images.
World View  
A lab co-op helps young faculty members to thrive
Linking a lab with others fosters crucial camaraderie, collaboration and productivity, writes Rebecca Heald.
Rebecca Heald
Research Highlights  
Newfound chameleon species flashes rainbow colours and a nose like Pinocchio’s
Resplendent reptile and two similar species have been discovered in the remote forests of Madagascar.
Mass suicide documented in bacteria
Microbes pump out acid until they burst.
A nanomaterial to make your phone battery last
Compound prevents deterioration of an inexpensive component.
Sex pays off for stick insects despite costs
Species comparison confirms downsides of asexual reproduction.
Six-year-olds can cooperate to protect common assets
Children use adult-like tactics to tackle ‘tragedy of the commons’ puzzle.
A robot that builds IKEA furniture in a snap
Machine made from off-the-shelf components constructs chair from a kit in less than 25 minutes.
Booze-busting nanopills to help the liver
Miniature capsules deliver enzymes that quickly cut blood-alcohol levels.
Lost planet gave birth to space rock’s diamonds
Minerals in miniature gems point to origins in the early Solar System.
Why a sweaty workout dampens appetite
A rise in body temperature directly affects brain cells that regulate eating.
Seven Days  
Planet-hunter launch, epilepsy drug and NASA’s next chief
The week in science: 20–26 April 2018.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
Clear signs of global warming will hit poorer countries first
New climate-inequality tool quantifies how quickly the weather will veer beyond normal in different regions.
Quirin Schiermeier
Scientists’ early grant success fuels further funding
Young researchers who narrowly miss out on postdoctoral grant struggle to compete with those who just qualify.
Holly Else
US government considers charging for popular Earth-observing data
Images from Landsat satellites and agricultural-survey programme are freely available to scientists — but for how long?
Gabriel Popkin
Rent increase hits Europe’s drug regulator before Brexit move
With a move from London to Amsterdam less than a year away, the European Medicines Agency is facing uncertainty.
Inga Vesper
Mars probe poised to solve red planet’s methane mystery
Researchers hope European–Russian Trace Gas Orbiter will end a long-running debate over source of the gas on Mars.
Nisha Gaind
Flu virus finally sequenced in its native form
Direct sequencing of RNA molecules such as virus genomes should help to unpick role of mysterious chemical modifications.
Ewen Callaway
Can the world kick its fossil-fuel addiction fast enough?
Clean energy is growing quickly. But time is running out to rein in carbon emissions.
Jeff Tollefson
Is ‘friendly fire’ in the brain provoking Alzheimer’s disease?
Scientists want to combat dementia and neurodegeneration by keeping the brain’s immune system from going rogue.
Alison Abbott
Nature Podcast 26 April 2018
This week, the ethical questions raised by model minds, and an updated view on an enzyme that keeps chromosomes protected.
The ethics of experimenting with human brain tissue
Difficult questions will be raised as models of the human brain get closer to replicating its functions, explain Nita A. Farahany, Henry T. Greely and 15 colleagues.
Nita A. Farahany, Henry T. Greely, Steven Hyman et al.
Books and Arts  
Where the wild tales are: how stories teach kids to nurture nature
S. F. Said explores a study on children’s books as preparation for planetary crises.
S. F. Said
A visceral history of dinosaurs, the world through the nose of a dog and the psychological secrets of the plot twist: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week’s best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Order must spring from chaos in Italian research
Gerry Melino
Canadian cod comeback derailed
Sherrylynn Rowe, George A. Rose
Geoengineering might speed glacier melt
Twila A. Moon
Make codes for research integrity practical
Maura Hiney
Cap drug prices with policy – here’s how
Leah Cairns
A photo celebration of scientists at work
In this year's contest, Nature follows scientists from starry Antarctic fields to African volcanic plains.
Jack Leeming
My favourite sentience
Something to watch over me.
Marissa Lingen
LUBAC is essential for embryogenesis by preventing cell death and enabling haematopoiesis
The HOIL-1 component of the LUBAC ubiquitin ligase complex is required for LUBAC activity, which prevents lethality during embryogenesis by preventing aberrant TNFR1-mediated endothelial cell death and RIPK1-mediated defects in haematopoiesis.
Architecture of an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase initiation complex
A cryo-EM structure of an initiation complex of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sheds light on the initiation of reverse transcription of viral RNA.
Structure of the alternative complex III in a supercomplex with cytochrome oxidase
The structure of alternative complex III, a key enzyme in the bacterial electron transport chain, is reported both alone and as a supercomplex with an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase.
Cryo-EM structure of the gasdermin A3 membrane pore
High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of the membrane-pore-forming domain of the mouse gasdermin GSDMA3 show that it forms pores with 26-, 27- or 28-fold symmetry and indicate that it may also form a parallel, soluble, pre-pore ring structure.
An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics
An optical-frequency synthesizer based on stabilized frequency combs has been developed utilizing chip-scale devices as key components, in a move towards using integrated photonics technology for ultrafast science and metrology.
Genomic variation in 3,010 diverse accessions of Asian cultivated rice
Analyses of genetic variation and population structure based on over 3,000 cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) genomes reveal subpopulations that correlate with geographic location and patterns of introgression consistent with multiple rice domestication events.
Cryo-EM structure of substrate-bound human telomerase holoenzyme
A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the substrate-bound human telomerase holoenzyme, which lengthens the protective caps on chromosomes.
Deep mitochondrial origin outside the sampled alphaproteobacteria
Genome data for thirteen alphaproteobacteria-related clades expand the coverage of alphaproteobacterial diversity and suggest that mitochondria diverged from Alphaproteobacteria before the diversification of all currently known alphaproteobacterial lineages.
Nanoscale synthesis and affinity ranking
A system that combines nanoscale synthesis and affinity ranking enables high-throughput screening of reaction conditions and bioactivity for a given protein target, accelerating the process of drug discovery.
News & Views  
Classic reaction re-engineered through molecular face recognition
Tobias Morack, Ryan Gilmour
A broader look at adolescents with perinatal HIV
Patricia M. Flynn
Shrimp cause a stir
Henry Gee
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Organoids reveal cancer dynamics
Calvin J. Kuo, Christina Curtis
Transition states that allow cancer to spread
Erik W. Thompson, Shivashankar H. Nagaraj
50 & 100 years ago
Entangled vibrations in mechanical oscillators
Andrew Armour
Hunger is a gatekeeper of pain in the brain
Alexey Ponomarenko, Tatiana Korotkova
Quaternary stereocentres via an enantioconvergent catalytic SN1 reaction
Cooperation between a chiral hydrogen-bond-donor catalyst and a strong Lewis-acid promoter in an SN1-type reaction mediates the formation of tertiary carbocations and enables control over enantioselectivity and product distribution.
Alison E. Wendlandt, Prithvi Vangal, Eric N. Jacobsen
Renewing Felsenstein’s phylogenetic bootstrap in the era of big data
A new version of the phylogenetic bootstrap method enables assessment of the robustness of phylogenies that are based on large datasets of hundreds or thousands of taxa.
F. Lemoine, J.-B. Domelevo Entfellner, E. Wilkinson et al.
Intra-tumour diversification in colorectal cancer at the single-cell level
Organoids derived from individual cells from colorectal cancers and adjacent normal tissue are used to investigate intra-tumour diversification at the genomic, epigenetic and functional levels.
Sophie F. Roerink, Nobuo Sasaki, Henry Lee-Six et al.
Identification of the tumour transition states occurring during EMT
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in tumour cells occurs through distinct intermediate states, associated with different metastatic potential, cellular properties, gene expression, and chromatin landscape.
Ievgenia Pastushenko, Audrey Brisebarre, Alejandro Sifrim et al.
A massive core for a cluster of galaxies at a redshift of 4.3
Observations of carbon monoxide and ionized carbon lines from the source SPT2349-56 show it to contain a cluster of at least fourteen gas-rich galaxies with redshifts of 4.31, in a highly dense core region.
T. B. Miller, S. C. Chapman, M. Aravena et al.
Remote quantum entanglement between two micromechanical oscillators
Remote quantum entanglement is demonstrated in a micromachined solid-state system comprising two optomechanical oscillators across two chips physically separated by 20 cm and with an optical separation of around 70 m.
Ralf Riedinger, Andreas Wallucks, Igor Marinković et al.
Stabilized entanglement of massive mechanical oscillators
Quantum entanglement is demonstrated in a system of massive micromechanical oscillators coupled to a microwave-frequency electromagnetic cavity by driving the devices into a steady state that is entangled.
C. F. Ockeloen-Korppi, E. Damskägg, J.-M. Pirkkalainen et al.
Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator
Ohmic losses in plasmonic devices can be reduced by exploiting ‘resonant switching’, in which light couples to surface plasmon polaritons only when in resonance and bypasses them otherwise.
Christian Haffner, Daniel Chelladurai, Yuriy Fedoryshyn et al.
Earthquake-induced transformation of the lower crust
During continent collision and associated mountain building, a surprisingly large volume of the lower crust is shown to be affected by earthquake aftershocks, producing a top-down effect on crustal geodynamics.
Bjørn Jamtveit, Yehuda Ben-Zion, François Renard et al.
Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages
Acute heat stress from the extended marine heatwave of 2016 is a potent driver of the transformation of coral assemblages, which affects even the most remote and well-protected reefs of the Great Barrier Reef.
Terry P. Hughes, James T. Kerry, Andrew H. Baird et al.
Vertically migrating swimmers generate aggregation-scale eddies in a stratified column
Laboratory experiments with the brine shrimp Artemia salina illustrate the potential for turbulence generated by the diurnal vertical migrations of aggregations of centimetre-scale zooplankton to affect the physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic water columns.
Isabel A. Houghton, Jeffrey R. Koseff, Stephen G. Monismith et al.
Electrophilic properties of itaconate and derivatives regulate the IκBζ–ATF3 inflammatory axis
The immunoregulatory metabolite itaconate and its dimethyl derivative induce electrophilic stress and react with glutathione to induce both Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent responses, resulting in AF3-mediated inhibition of the inflammation-related protein IκBζ.
Monika Bambouskova, Laurent Gorvel, Vicky Lampropoulou et al.
Genetic identification of leptin neural circuits in energy and glucose homeostases
A subset of neurons in the hypothalamus is identified as the primary site of action for regulating energy balance and glucose homeostasis by leptin.
Jie Xu, Christopher L. Bartolome, Cho Shing Low et al.
Pluripotency factors functionally premark cell-type-restricted enhancers in ES cells
Binding of an embryonic stem cell-specific transcription factor pre-marks cell-type-restricted enhancers in embryonic stem cells, and this premarking is required for the robustness of enhancer activation in differentiated cells.
Hong Sook Kim, Yuliang Tan, Wubin Ma et al.
Mechanism of NMDA receptor channel block by MK-801 and memantine
A high-resolution X-ray structure and molecular dynamics simulations of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in complexes with channel-blocking ligands reveals the molecular basis of the ligand binding and channel block.
Xianqiang Song, Morten Ø. Jensen, Vishwanath Jogini et al.
Structural basis of ligand binding modes at the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor
Crystal structures of the neuropeptide Y1 receptor in complex with two distinct antagonists combined with NMR, molecular docking and mutagenesis studies inform a proposed model for receptor–agonist binding.
Zhenlin Yang, Shuo Han, Max Keller et al.


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