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TABLE OF CONTENTS

May 2018 Volume 24, Issue 5

Editorial
News Feature
News & Views
Review Articles
Brief Communications
Letters
Articles
Resources
 
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New Antibody Search Engine with Publication Data

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Nominations now open! 

Who are the future leading women in science? The Nature Research Awards for Inspiring Science and Innovating Science are now open for nominations. 

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Nature Outlook: Cancer immunotherapy 

Drugs that mobilize our immune systems against cancer are dramatically improving care for many people, and research is rapidly moving ahead in the lab and the clinic. 

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Produced with support from: 
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Medimmune 

Produced with support of a grant from Merck & Co., Inc.
 

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Nature Index 2018 Japan

Some of Japan's smallest institutions are among the most efficient in the production of high quality scientific research, though the decline in Japan's high quality scientific research output continues. This supplement examines reform efforts in light of the country's aim to become a "super-smart" society.

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Editorial

 

Redefining Medicine    p527
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0037-3

News Feature

 

The best Cas scenario    pp528 - 530
Peter Andrey Smith
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0038-2

Sleeper cells    pp531 - 533
Shraddha Chakradhar
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0039-1

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News & Views

 

CAR T cells for childhood diffuse midline gliomas    pp534 - 535
Vijay Ramaswamy & Michael D Taylor
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0031-9

Predicting breast cancer therapeutic response    pp535 - 537
Ana C. Garrido-Castro & Eric P. Winer
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0033-7

Targeting metabolism to treat psoriasis    pp537 - 539
Paul Hiebert & Sabine Werner
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0027-5

AI for medical imaging goes deep    pp539 - 540
Daniel S. W. Ting, Yong Liu, Philippe Burlina, Xinxing Xu, Neil M. Bressler et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0029-3

Medicine
JOBS of the week
Postdoctoral Research Fellow - BME
University of South Dakota
Post-doctoral position at the Department of Medicine, Chair of Pharmacology
University of Fribourg, Switzerland
Postdoctoral Associate
Yale Cancer Center and Yale School of Medicine
Postdoctoral Associate
University of Massachusetts

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International Workshop on Medicine and Healthcare(IWMH2018)
15.06.18
Hangzhou, China
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Poster on: CAR T cells in cancer therapy 

Nature Reviews Drug Discovery present this Poster which provides an overview of the different ways to design and produce CAR T cells and the journey that has driven these CAR T cells to FDA approval in 2017. 

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Review Articles

 

Understanding the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) for effective therapy    pp541 - 550
Mikhail Binnewies, Edward W. Roberts, Kelly Kersten, Vincent Chan, Douglas F. Fearon et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0014-x

The tumor immune microenvironment influences tumor progression and response to immunotherapy; its further characterization will improve therapeutic outcome.

 

Brief Communications

 

MC4R agonism promotes durable weight loss in patients with leptin receptor deficiency    pp551 - 555
Karine Clément, Heike Biebermann, I. Sadaf Farooqi, Lex Van der Ploeg, Barbara Wolters et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0015-9

Treatment with setmelanotide, a new-generation MC4R agonist, provides durable weight loss in hyperphagic, leptin receptor-deficient patients, suggesting a pharmacological avenue to treat patients with various MC4R pathway defects.

 

Letters

 

ARID1A deficiency promotes mutability and potentiates therapeutic antitumor immunity unleashed by immune checkpoint blockade    pp556 - 562
Jianfeng Shen, Zhenlin Ju, Wei Zhao, Lulu Wang, Yang Peng et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0012-z

Loss of mismatch-repair protein ARID1A in cancer correlates with high mutation load & checkpoint blockade response, complementing MSI-based prognosis.

 

Determinants of response and resistance to CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia    pp563 - 571
Joseph A. Fraietta, Simon F. Lacey, Elena J. Orlando, Iulian Pruteanu-Malinici, Mercy Gohil et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0010-1

An IL-6/STAT3 signature and memory CD8 T cell subset in preinfusion chimeric antigen receptor–expressing T cells associate with response in patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

 

Potent antitumor efficacy of anti-GD2 CAR T cells in H3-K27M+ diffuse midline gliomas    pp572 - 579
Christopher W. Mount, Robbie G. Majzner, Shree Sundaresh, Evan P. Arnold, Meena Kadapakkam et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0006-x

Lethal pediatric tumors bearing a particular histone H3 mutation upregulate the disialoganglioside GD2, thereby making these tumors susceptible to chimeric antigen receptor T cell–based immunotherapy.

 

Transcript-indexed ATAC-seq for precision immune profiling    pp580 - 590
Ansuman T. Satpathy, Naresha Saligrama, Jason D. Buenrostro, Yuning Wei, Beijing Wu et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0008-8

A new technique enabling single-cell analysis of T cell receptor identity and epigenomic state uncovers heterogeneity in normal and leukemic T cells.

 

Antidepressive effects of targeting ELK-1 signal transduction    pp591 - 597
Kallia Apazoglou, Séverine Farley, Victor Gorgievski, Raoul Belzeaux, Juan Pablo Lopez et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0011-0

The transcription factor ELK-1 is upregulated in patients with major depressive disorder, and selective inhibition of hippocampal ELK-1 produces rapid antidepressive effects in rodent models of depression.

 

PM20D1 is a�quantitative trait locus associated with Alzheimer's disease    pp598 - 603
Jose V. Sanchez-Mut, Holger Heyn, Bianca A. Silva, Lucie Dixsaut, Paula Garcia-Esparcia et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0013-y

Expression of PM20D1 is regulated by long-range chromatin interactions with an Alzheimer's disease risk haplotype, and PM20D1 overexpression reduces AD-like pathology and cognitive impairment in a rodent model.

 

Clonal CD4+ T cells in the HIV-1 latent reservoir display a distinct gene profile upon reactivation    pp604 - 609
Lillian B. Cohn, Israel T. da Silva, Renan Valieris, Amy S. Huang, Julio C. C. Lorenzi et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0017-7

A shared gene expression program associated with silencing HIV-1 transcription may be critical for persistence of reactivated latent CD4+ T cells in patients with HIV.

 

Articles

 

A single injection of crystallizable fragment domain-modified antibodies elicits durable protection from SHIV infection    pp610 - 616
Rajeev Gautam, Yoshiaki Nishimura, Natalie Gaughan, Anna Gazumyan, Till Schoofs et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0001-2

Long-lived antibodies that can prevent viral infection of monkeys for 6 months may be a future alternative to an HIV vaccine.

 

Differential glucose requirement in skin homeostasis and injury identifies a therapeutic target for psoriasis    pp617 - 627
Zhuzhen Zhang, Zhenzhen Zi, Eunice E. Lee, Jiawei Zhao, Diana C. Contreras et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0003-0

Keratinocytes require glucose for injury- or inflammation-driven but not homeostatic proliferation, and glucose-transport blockade blocks psoriasis-like pathology in experimental models.

 

Carboplatin in BRCA1/2-mutated and triple-negative breast cancer BRCAness subgroups: the TNT Trial    pp628 - 637
Andrew Tutt, Holly Tovey, Maggie Chon U. Cheang, Sarah Kernaghan, Lucy Kilburn et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0009-7

The phase 3 TNT Trial in subjects with triple-negative breast cancer supports the superiority of carboplatin over docetaxel in BRCA1/2-mutated tumors and a greater response to taxanes in the nonbasal subtype.

 

Mechanisms and clinical activity of an EGFR and HER2 exon 20-selective kinase inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer    pp638 - 646
Jacqulyne P. Robichaux, Yasir Y. Elamin, Zhi Tan, Brett W. Carter, Shuxing Zhang et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0007-9

Poziotinib is a candidate inhibitor for a subset of EGFR or HER2 mutant non–small cell lung cancers that lack effective therapy.

 

Gain of toxic apolipoprotein E4 effects in human iPSC-derived neurons is ameliorated by a small-molecule structure corrector    pp647 - 657
Chengzhong Wang, Ramsey Najm, Qin Xu, Dah-eun Jeong, David Walker et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0004-z

Human iPSC-derived neurons are generated from individuals with or without Alzheimer's disease carrying different APOE alleles and reveal a toxic, neuron-intrinsic gain of function of the ApoE4 variant that is a strong genetic risk factor for AD.

 

Stimulation of entorhinal cortex-dentate gyrus circuitry is antidepressive    pp658 - 666
Sanghee Yun, Ryan P. Reynolds, Iraklis Petrof, Alicia White, Phillip D. Rivera et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0002-1

In mouse models of stress-induced depression, molecular and chemogenetic stimulation of the entorhinal cortex induces the production of adult-born hippocampal neurons and generates antidepressive-like effects.

 

Targeting sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase as an anabolic therapy for bone loss    pp667 - 678
Sarah Weske, Mithila Vaidya, Alina Reese, Karin von Wnuck Lipinski, Petra Keul et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0005-y

Promoting more bone growth is of keen interest in the treatment of osteoporosis, and preventing the degradation of S1P offers a new therapeutic avenue for this approach.

 

Resources

 

Molecular subtypes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma are associated with distinct pathogenic mechanisms and outcomes    pp679 - 690
Bjoern Chapuy, Chip Stewart, Andrew J. Dunford, Jaegil Kim, Atanas Kamburov et al.
doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0016-8

Comprehensive integration of mutational and structural alterations in clinically-annotated DLBCL patient samples provides a novel molecular classification of the disease.

 

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NYU - Nature Conference on Chemical Biology 

August 13-14, New York

This conference will provide a forum for discussing innovative strategies for research in chemical biology. It will cover the breadth of chemical biology ranging from the construction DNA as material and sensors, regulation of gene expression, synthesis and derivatization of proteins, synthetic biology and the human microbiome.
 
 
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