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Nature Volume 556 Issue 7700
This Week  
Ocean circulation is changing, and we need to know why
Long-term monitoring is essential for working out how alterations in the Atlantic Ocean current system will affect the planet.
How gravitational waves might help fundamental cosmology
New observations could help us understand discrepancies in measurements of the expansion of the Universe.
New awards aim to celebrate women in science
Prizes will reward outstanding scientific discovery and exceptional efforts to engage girls and young women in science.
World View  
Demand cancer drugs that truly help patients
Drug regulators and trial designs should assess benefits that actually matter to people with cancer, says Ajay Aggarwal.
Ajay Aggarwal
Research Highlights  
Jekyll and Hyde, a story of two galaxies
While one sits bright and quiet, the other creates stars behind a dusty veil.
A chance to save Arctic sea ice
Goals set by the Paris climate agreement to limit warming would preserve ice during summers.
How a chicken makes a good egg
Nanostructures and a binding protein create a shell strong enough to protect a chick but soft enough for it to hatch.
A molecule that manufactures asymmetry
Compound’s variations could spawn catalysts that favour certain chiral forms.
A squid-skin-inspired invisibility cloak
Patterning allows stretchy polymer to hide from heat sensors.
An absorbing study on the maths of sponges
Formula predicts speed at which dry material soaks up water.
Dexterous sea turtles use flippers as grippers
Marine reptiles hold onto their dinners with their paddle-like forelimbs.
Mice show motherly habits when a brain circuit fires
Cells in two brain regions underlie maternal behaviour.
Why fat piles on when the body’s daily cycles are in disarray
Timing of hormone fluctuations influences fat cells’ development.
Seven Days  
Suspected chemical attack, opioid-crisis cash and nuclear-fusion facility
The week in science: 6–12 April 2018.
Horizon Discovery has developed a suite of functional genomic screening technologies, including a CRISPR-Cas9 platform aiming is to help its partners to identify, evaluate and validate targets; to understand drug mechanisms of action, and to facilitate studies involving patient stratification. 
News in Focus
Beijing launches pioneering brain-science centre
China’s much-anticipated brain initiative finally starts to take shape.
David Cyranoski
NASA’s next exoplanet hunter will seek worlds close to home
The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite is designed to spot planets orbiting nearby bright stars.
Alexandra Witze
Science’s vast gender pay gap revealed in UK wage data
Pay disparities at science employers outpace national average for all firms.
Holly Else
Plan to dismantle Puerto Rico’s statistics agency gets green light
The reorganization could jeopardize access to reliable, independent data about the island, critics say.
Giorgia Guglielmi
Cutting-edge cancer drug hobbled by diagnostic test confusion
Physicians struggle to identify which patients are likely to respond to a recently approved therapy.
Heidi Ledford
How gravitational waves could solve some of the Universe’s deepest mysteries
With the first detections behind them, researchers have set their sights on ambitious scientific quarry.
Davide Castelvecchi
Nature Podcast 12 April 2018
This week, the power of remote sensing, an Atlantic slowdown, and watching a neutron star glitch.
People must retain control of autonomous vehicles
Legislation on the testing of self-driving cars does not address liability and safety concerns, warn Ashley Nunes, Bryan Reimer and Joseph F. Coughlin.
Ashley Nunes, Bryan Reimer, Joseph F. Coughlin
Books and Arts  
A physicist probes the metaphysical
Anil Ananthaswamy examines Alan Lightman’s reflections on the tensions between empiricism and experience.
Anil Ananthaswamy
The deep past of megafires, big data’s Achilles heel and behind the scenes of the March for Science: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week’s best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Don’t dismiss citations to journals not published in English
Vladimir S. Lazarev, Serhii A. Nazarovets
Build two-way rapport for better policymaking
Adam P. Hejnowicz, Sue E. Hartley, Nigel Gilbert
Save a North Sea fish from becoming museum piece
Jon C. Svendsen, Aage K. O. Alstrup, Lasse F. Jensen
Take a holistic view when making pesticide policies stricter
Robert Finger
Curtail climate-change effects using Singapore Index of Cities’ Biodiversity
Sameen Ahmed Khan
Technology Feature  
Cancer research with a human touch
Advances in gene editing are allowing researchers to create mouse models that more closely mirror the disease in humans.
Mike May
Outsourcing is in
As big pharma downsizes, contract research organizations are reaping the benefits.
Esther Landhuis
Convert your weaknesses into assets
Work out what you really enjoy doing, and pitch your skills accordingly, says Lia Paola Zambetti.
Lia Paola Zambetti
It is time to play your part.
S. R. Algernon
An evolutionarily conserved ribosome-rescue pathway maintains epidermal homeostasis
Loss of the ribosome-rescue factor Pelo in a subset of mouse epidermal stem cells results in hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of these cells.
High male sexual investment as a driver of extinction in fossil ostracods
Ostracod species (small, bivalved crustaceans) with high sexual dimorphism, and therefore high male investment, had markedly higher extinction rates than low-investment species, indicating that sexual selection can be a substantial risk factor for extinction.
Aspm knockout ferret reveals an evolutionary mechanism governing cerebral cortical size
In a ferret model, the microcephaly-associated gene Aspm regulates cortical expansion by controlling the transition of ventricular radial glial cells to more differentiated cell types.
Innate immune memory in the brain shapes neurological disease hallmarks
Peripheral stimuli can induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to long-lasting epigenetic reprogramming of microglia; these changes alter pathology in mouse models of stroke and Alzheimer’s pathology .
Genome evolution across 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates
Whole-genome sequencing of 1,011 natural isolates of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals its evolutionary history, including a single out-of-China origin and multiple domestication events, and provides a framework for genotype–phenotype studies in this model organism.
Activity-based E3 ligase profiling uncovers an E3 ligase with esterification activity
Non-lysine ubiquitination activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MYCBP2 is identified by activity-based profiling; biochemical and structural analysis of MYCBP2 suggests the basis for its mechanism and specificity.
Structure and regulation of the human INO80–nucleosome complex
Cryo-electron microscopy structure of the human IO80 chromatin remodeller in complex with a bound nucleosome reveals that its motor domains are located at the DNA wrap around the histone core.
Intra-tumour diversification in colorectal cancer at the single-cell level
Organoids derived from individual cells from colorectal cancers and adjacent normal tissue are used to investigate intra-tumour diversification at the genomic, epigenetic and functional levels.
Structural basis for ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling by the INO80 complex
Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the evolutionarily conserved core of a fungal INO80 complex bound to the nucleosomal substrate reveal the mechanism underlying nucleosome sliding and histone editing used by this ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller.
Vms1 and ANKZF1 peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases release nascent chains from stalled ribosomes
The Cdc48 adaptor Vms1 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase that cooperates with the ribosome quality control complex to catalyse the removal of nascent polypeptides from stalled ribosomes.
News & Views  
The certainty of quantum randomness
Stefano Pironio
Mirrors made of a single atomic layer
Kin Fai Mak, Jie Shan
Peptide signal alerts plants to drought
Alexander Christmann, Erwin Grill
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North Atlantic circulation slows down
Summer K. Praetorius
The telomerase enzyme and liver renewal
Kenneth S. Zaret
Backbone of RNA viruses uncovered
Mark Zeller, Kristian G. Andersen
Reversible Mn2+/Mn4+ double redox in lithium-excess cathode materials
Lithium-rich cathode materials in which manganese undergoes double redox could point the way for lithium-ion batteries to meet the capacity and energy density needs of portable electronics and electric vehicles.
Jinhyuk Lee, Daniil A. Kitchaev, Deok-Hwang Kwon et al.
Observed fingerprint of a weakening Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation
A characteristic ‘fingerprint’ of sea-surface temperatures suggests that the Atlantic overturning circulation has slowed substantially since the mid-twentieth century, as predicted by climate models in response to increasing carbon dioxide emissions.
L. Caesar, S. Rahmstorf, A. Robinson et al.
The evolutionary history of vertebrate RNA viruses
Around 200 new vertebrate-specific viruses are discovered, and every vertebrate-specific viral family known to infect mammals and birds is also present in amphibians, reptiles or fish, suggesting that evolution of vertebrate viruses mirrors that of vertebrate hosts.
Mang Shi, Xian-Dan Lin, Xiao Chen et al.
Cryo-EM structure of the Blastochloris viridis LH1–RC complex at 2.9 Å
A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the light-harvesting–reaction centre (LH1–RC) complex of the photosynthetic bacterium Blastochloris viridis suggests factors that underlie the large redshift in the absorption spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll in the complex and that promote quinone–quinol translocation across the LH1 ring.
Pu Qian, C. Alistair Siebert, Peiyi Wang et al.
Structure of photosynthetic LH1–RC supercomplex at 1.9 Å resolution
The structure of the Thermochromatium tepidum calcium-ion-bound light-harvesting–reaction centre (LH1–RC) supercomplex, which performs the primary reactions of photosynthesis in purple photosynthetic bacteria, is resolved to the atomic level.
Long-Jiang Yu, Michihiro Suga, Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo et al.
Crystal structures of the gastric proton pump
Crystal structures of the gastric proton pump in complex with two inhibitory drugs reveal the mechanism that generates the steep acidic gradient across the membranes of parietal cells.
Kazuhiro Abe, Katsumasa Irie, Hanayo Nakanishi et al.
Alteration of the magnetosphere of the Vela pulsar during a glitch
Single-pulse radio observations of a glitch in the Vela pulsar show sudden changes in the pulse shape coincident with the glitch, indicating that the glitch could affect the pulsar’s magnetosphere.
Jim Palfreyman, John M. Dickey, Aidan Hotan et al.
Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals
1,024 random bits that are uniformly distributed to within 10−12 and unpredictable assuming the impossibility of superluminal communication are generated and certified using a loophole-free Bell test.
Peter Bierhorst, Emanuel Knill, Scott Glancy et al.
Anomalously weak Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning during the past 150 years
Palaeoclimate records show that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation weakened substantially at the end of the Little Ice Age, probably in response to enhanced freshwater fluxes from the Arctic and Nordic seas.
David J. R. Thornalley, Delia W. Oppo, Pablo Ortega et al.
Accelerated increase in plant species richness on mountain summits is linked to warming
Analysis of changes in plant species richness on mountain summits over the past 145 years suggests that increased climatic warming has led to an acceleration in species richness increase.
Manuel J. Steinbauer, John-Arvid Grytnes, Gerald Jurasinski et al.
A small peptide modulates stomatal control via abscisic acid in long-distance signalling
In an Arabidopsis model, the CLE25 peptide acts as a root-to-shoot signalling molecule that modulates abscisic acid expression to close stomata and enhance resistance to dehydration.
Fuminori Takahashi, Takehiro Suzuki, Yuriko Osakabe et al.
Advanced maturation of human cardiac tissue grown from pluripotent stem cells
A tissue culture system that provides an increasing intensity of electromechanical stimulation over time enables an in vitro model of cardiac tissue derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells to develop many of the characteristics of adult cardiac tissue.
Kacey Ronaldson-Bouchard, Stephen P. Ma, Keith Yeager et al.
Distributed hepatocytes expressing telomerase repopulate the liver in homeostasis and injury
A population of hepatocytes expressing high levels of telomerase are distributed throughout the liver and regenerate the liver during homeostasis and after injury.
Shengda Lin, Elisabete M. Nascimento, Chandresh R. Gajera et al.
Metabolic enzyme PFKFB4 activates transcriptional coactivator SRC-3 to drive breast cancer
The glycolytic enzyme PFKFB4 directly phosphorylates and regulates binding of the coactivator SRC-3 to ATF4 and thereby increases the transcriptional activity of this complex, leading to increased expression of metabolic genes, and enhancing tumour growth and metastasis.
Subhamoy Dasgupta, Kimal Rajapakshe, Bokai Zhu et al.
Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin
Analysis of viral samples from deceased piglets shows that a bat coronavirus was responsible for an outbreak of fatal disease in China and highlights the importance of the identification of coronavirus diversity and distribution in bats in order to mitigate future outbreaks of disease.
Peng Zhou, Hang Fan, Tian Lan et al.


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