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Nature Volume 559 Issue 7714
This Week  
With Pruitt gone, Trump and his allies continue to threaten the EPA
Track the fate of postdocs to help the next generation of scientists
Officials and scientists need help to track down rogue source of CFCs
World View  
Why I testified in the Argentina abortion debate
Alberto Kornblihtt
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Turtle trouble, fund fraud and India’s escape module
News in Focus
Single subatomic particle illuminates mysterious origins of cosmic rays
Davide Castelvecchi
China expands surveillance of sewage to police illegal drug use
David Cyranoski
Science journals end open-access trial with Gates Foundation
Richard Van Noorden
Jupiter has 10 more moons we didn't know about — and they're weird
Alexandra Witze
Gene therapy in mouse fetuses treats deadly disease
Heidi Ledford
Science under siege: behind the scenes at Trump’s troubled environment agency
Jeff Tollefson
Nature Podcast 19 July 2018
This week, tougher DNA nanostructures, climate-altering permafrost microbes, and using a robot to discover chemical reactions.
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Date: Wednesday, July 25, 2018

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Beat protectionism and emissions at a stroke
Michael A. Mehling, Harro van Asselt, Kasturi Das et al.
AI can be sexist and racist — it’s time to make it fair
James Zou, Londa Schiebinger
Books and Arts  
Summer reads: Darwin’s dilemma on sexual selection, ecology versus empire, and the dark side of the greater good
Andrew Jaffe, Fatimah Jackson, Elizabeth Yale et al.
Iran’s scientists uncrushed by decades of sanctions
Shahin Akhondzadeh
Learn from industry to build a healthy lab
Z. Hugh Fan
Evaluation woes: professors should have fought harder
Andrew Beattie
Evaluation woes: define metrics from the off
Paola Zaratin, Marco Salvetti
Evaluation woes: Metrics can help beat bias
Li Tang, Guangyuan Hu
How retirement can give your career a new lease of life
Amber Dance
Why organizing a scientific conference can produce huge benefits
Francesco Sciortino
Papa Bear

Kurt Pankau
Leukaemia hijacks a neural mechanism to invade the central nervous system
Expression of α6 integrin enables acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells to use neural migratory pathways to invade the central nervous system and metastasize to the brain.
Hisayuki Yao, Trevor T. Price, Gaia Cantelli et al.
Peptide secretion triggers diabetes
An autoimmune attack on cells that make the hormone insulin causes type 1 diabetes. A mouse study reveals that pancreatic-cell release of insulin peptide fragments into the bloodstream triggers this harmful process.
Jiajie Wei, Jonathan W. Yewdell
Thymic tuft cells promote an IL-4-enriched medulla and shape thymocyte development
A comprehensive analysis of the thymic medulla identifies a tuft-cell-like thymic epithelial cell population that is necessary for shaping thymic function.
Corey N. Miller, Irina Proekt, Jakob von Moltke et al.
An unexpected trigger for calorie burning in brown fat
The molecule succinate, which is a product of metabolism, promotes heat production and therefore calorie burning in brown fat in mice. This discovery could have implications for combating obesity in humans.
Sheng Hui, Joshua D. Rabinowitz
The shieldin complex mediates 53BP1-dependent DNA repair
The 53BP1 effector complex shieldin is involved in non-homologous end-joining and immunoglobulin class switching, and acts to protect DNA ends to facilitate the repair of DNA by 53BP1.
Sylvie M. Noordermeer, Salomé Adam, Dheva Setiaputra et al.
53BP1–RIF1–shieldin counteracts DSB resection through CST- and Polα-dependent fill-in
53BP1 and shieldin recruit the CTC1–STN1–TEN1 complex and polymerase-α to sites of DNA damage to help control the repair of double-strand breaks.
Zachary Mirman, Francisca Lottersberger, Hiroyuki Takai et al.
Photoswitching topology in polymer networks with metal–organic cages as crosslinks
Using topology-switching metal–ligand cages to crosslink polymer networks produces gels whose chemical and mechanical properties can be radically and reversibly switched on irradiation.
Yuwei Gu, Eric A. Alt, Heng Wang et al.
Glucose-regulated phosphorylation of TET2 by AMPK reveals a pathway linking diabetes to cancer
Modulation of DNA 5-hydroxymethylcytosine by glucose reveals an AMPK–TET2–5hmC axis that links diabetes to cancer.
Di Wu, Di Hu, Hao Chen et al.
Single-cell mapping of the thymic stroma identifies IL-25-producing tuft epithelial cells
A comprehensive characterization of the thymic stroma identifies a tuft-cell-like thymic epithelial cell population that is critical for shaping the immune niche in the thymus.
Chamutal Bornstein, Shir Nevo, Amir Giladi et al.
Accumulation of succinate controls activation of adipose tissue thermogenesis
A comparative metabolomics approach is used to identify succinate as a key activator of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue.
Evanna L. Mills, Kerry A. Pierce, Mark P. Jedrychowski et al.
Pancreatic islets communicate with lymphoid tissues via exocytosis of insulin peptides
A sensitive T cell tracking assay reveals immunogenic activity of specific catabolized peptide fragments of insulin and their effects on T cell activity in lymph nodes, highlighting communication between pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissue.
Xiaoxiao Wan, Bernd H. Zinselmeyer, Pavel N. Zakharov et al.
Leukaemia follows a blood-vessel track to enter the nervous system
Certain cancers are prone to invade the nervous system, which leads to poorer prognosis. A study of leukaemia in mice reveals an unexpectedly direct invasion route from the bone marrow to the central nervous system.
Frank Winkler
The outer membrane is an essential load-bearing element in Gram-negative bacteria
The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is shown to be at least as stiff as the cell wall, and this property enables it to protect cells from mechanical pertubations.
Enrique R. Rojas, Gabriel Billings, Pascal D. Odermatt et al.
Triple oxygen isotope evidence for limited mid-Proterozoic primary productivity
Triple oxygen isotope measurements of 1.4-billion-year-old sedimentary sulfates reveal a unique mid-Proterozoic atmosphere and demonstrate that gross primary productivity in the mid-Proterozoic was between 6% and 41% of pre-anthropogenic levels.
Peter W. Crockford, Justin A. Hayles, Huiming Bao et al.
Genome-centric view of carbon processing in thawing permafrost
Analysis of more than 1,500 microbial genomes sheds light on the processing of carbon released as permafrost thaws.
Ben J. Woodcroft, Caitlin M. Singleton, Joel A. Boyd et al.
Complex silica composite nanomaterials templated with DNA origami
DNA origami is used as a template to produce complex geometric shapes of nanoscale silica hybrid materials.
Xiaoguo Liu, Fei Zhang, Xinxin Jing et al.
News & Views  
A record-breaking microscope
John Rodenburg
Coronary artery development, one cell at a time
Arndt F. Siekmann
High-quality genomes reveal new differences between the great apes
Aylwyn Scally
Nature Spotlight on Robotics

Designing machines that can grasp and manipulate objects with anything approaching human levels of dexterity is first on the to-do list for robotics.

Access now >>
Resistance to prostate-cancer treatment is driven by immune cells
Matthew D. Galsky
Sluggish Atlantic circulation could cause global temperatures to surge
Gerard D. McCarthy, Peter W. Thorne
From the archive
Speciation far from the madding crowd
Arne O. Mooers, Dan A. Greenberg
Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution
Combining an electron microscope pixel-array detector that collects the entire distribution of scattered electrons with full-field ptychography greatly improves image resolution and contrast compared to traditional techniques, even at low beam energies.
Yi Jiang, Zhen Chen, Yimo Han et al.
Insights into clonal haematopoiesis from 8,342 mosaic chromosomal alterations
Analysis of genotyping data for more than 150,000 individuals from the UK Biobank using long-range phase information sheds light on mechanisms of clonal haematopoiesis.
Po-Ru Loh, Giulio Genovese, Robert E. Handsaker et al.
Single-cell analysis of early progenitor cells that build coronary arteries
During development, new arteries can arise from pre-existing veins; the cell fate switch involved occurs gradually and before the onset of blood flow in mouse embryo hearts.
Tianying Su, Geoff Stanley, Rahul Sinha et al.
IL-23 secreted by myeloid cells drives castration-resistant prostate cancer
IL-23 produced by myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulates castration resistance in prostate cancer by sustaining androgen receptor signalling.
Arianna Calcinotto, Clarissa Spataro, Elena Zagato et al.
Scaling up molecular pattern recognition with DNA-based winner-take-all neural networks
DNA-strand-displacement reactions are used to implement a neural network that can distinguish complex and noisy molecular patterns from a set of nine possibilities—an improvement on previous demonstrations that distinguished only four simple patterns.
Kevin M. Cherry, Lulu Qian
Controlling an organic synthesis robot with machine learning to search for new reactivity
A robot instructed by a machine learning algorithm and coupled with real-time spectroscopic systems provides fast and accurate reaction outcome predictions and reactivity assessments, leading to the discovery of new reactions.
Jarosław M. Granda, Liva Donina, Vincenza Dragone et al.
Synchronous tropical and polar temperature evolution in the Eocene
A 26-million-year record of equatorial sea surface temperatures reveals synchronous changes of tropical and polar temperatures during the Eocene epoch forced by variations in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, with a constant degree of polar amplification.
Margot J. Cramwinckel, Matthew Huber, Ilja J. Kocken et al.
Global surface warming enhanced by weak Atlantic overturning circulation
In preindustrial times, a weak Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation led to cooling in the Northern Hemisphere, but now it is predicted to cause accelerated global surface warming.
Xianyao Chen, Ka-Kit Tung
An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes
Contrary to previous hypotheses, high-latitude fish lineages form new species at much faster rates than their tropical counterparts especially in geographical regions that are characterized by low surface temperatures and high endemism.
Daniel L. Rabosky, Jonathan Chang, Pascal O. Title et al.
Hot streaks in artistic, cultural, and scientific careers
The career trajectories of around 30,000 artists, film directors and scientists show that individuals in each domain have ‘hot streaks’ during which their works have increased impact, despite showing no increase in productivity.
Lu Liu, Yang Wang, Roberta Sinatra et al.
Prediction of acute myeloid leukaemia risk in healthy individuals
Individuals who are at high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia can be identified years before diagnosis using genetic information from blood samples.
Sagi Abelson, Grace Collord, Stanley W. K. Ng et al.
Reprogramming human T cell function and specificity with non-viral genome targeting
A non-viral strategy to introduce large DNA sequences into T cells enables the correction of a pathogenic mutation that causes autoimmunity, and the replacement of an endogenous T-cell receptor with an engineered receptor that can recognize cancer antigens.
Theodore L. Roth, Cristina Puig-Saus, Ruby Yu et al.
Mechanism of parkin activation by PINK1
Structural mass spectrometry of full-length human parkin and a structure of the activated parkin core reveal large-scale domain rearrangements involved in activation of parkin by PINK1.
Christina Gladkova, Sarah L. Maslen, J. Mark Skehel et al.
Resistance-gene-directed discovery of a natural-product herbicide with a new mode of action
Fungal genome mining targeted to self-resistance genes close to biosynthetic gene clusters identifies a pathway that produces aspterric acid, which proves to be a potent inhibitor of plant growth.
Yan Yan, Qikun Liu, Xin Zang et al.
Prespliceosome structure provides insights into spliceosome assembly and regulation
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prespliceosome provides insights into splice-site selection and early spliceosome assembly events.
Clemens Plaschka, Pei-Chun Lin, Clément Charenton et al.
PtdIns(4,5)P2 stabilizes active states of GPCRs and enhances selectivity of G-protein coupling
Mass spectrometry-based assays are used to reveal specificity and structural determinants of lipid binding to class A G-protein-coupled receptors, and the effects of specific lipids on receptor coupling to G proteins.
Hsin-Yung Yen, Kin Kuan Hoi, Idlir Liko et al.
Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: Diffusible repression of cytokinin signalling produces endodermal symmetry and passage cells
Tonni Grube Andersen, Sadaf Naseer, Robertas Ursache et al.
Author Correction: The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancers
Susanne N. Gröbner, Barbara C. Worst, Joachim Weischenfeldt et al.
Publisher Correction: Programmable base editing of A•T to G•C in genomic DNA without DNA cleavage
Nicole M. Gaudelli, Alexis C. Komor, Holly A. Rees et al.


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